There are few things as satisfying as explaining to someone why their argument is unsound and invalid (or uncogent and weak), consider learning about the basics of logic and reason! Propagandists appeal to our fears but also to our courage, our hatred and our love. The idea is to create an exhaustive list over time, even if that means over-lap. Examples of propaganda include, a War Time poster that promises “Only X ideology has the answer” or “an ad on TV that tries to connect with you emotionally to sell a drug.”. It is when elites try to act like regular ol’ folks (mirroring their mannerisms, ideology, and policy stances) to try to connect with an audience that they wouldn’t otherwise connect with. • Propaganda is an essential tool that is used to manage modern social order and also to mobilize masses. Some general propaganda strategies and terms worth pointing out in their own section: TIP: A conspiracy theory is generally actually a speculative hypothesis. But if that’s all there is, if the system either lacks or disavows a mechanism to obtain the evidence, analyze it rationally, and disseminate it clearly, then before long we will have neither justice nor politics to speak of. Flag waving: Using nationalism or patriotism to sell an idea. Pensée unique (French for “single thought”): the repression of alternative viewpoints by simplistic arguments. Who Most Wants to Get Back Together With an Ex? That work is important but it is clear that informationdissemination strategies only become propaganda strategies when coupled withp… A common technique of sales people, “you bought the air freshener, your only one crushing debt away from that sports car!” A form of up-selling. We are more likely to act on a feeling without much thought than to act on a thought without much feeling. A. Mimicrycan increase rapport, liking, and positive feelings. He omits facts. Can be used to create a more positive image of an idea, brand, or group or can speak to getting people to embrace an idea, brand, or group by making them think they share positive qualities with the group. Capitalism, 2. A lot of propaganda involves doublespeak. It means that our emotional system can be manipulated to destructive ends. TIP: In logic and reason, deductive reasoning uses certainty and inductive reasoning uses probability. 3. Propagandists will use testimonials to legitimize an idea or position. 4.6 out of 5 stars 332. Exploiting the nature fear of “others” and the desire to belong to a group is a favorite tactic of propagandists and authoritarians. Managing the news (talking points): Staying on message, spreading the talking point, and using classical conditioning. Consider, rhetoric has been long studied as the art of effective persuasion in speech. Haven’t seen you there recently, is there something you aren’t telling us? Don’t confuse speculation with fact and if you speculate, state certainty, specifics, and nuances. Let’s call the bad kind “negative” and the good kind “positive.” If we don’t denote the type, look to the context in which the term is used. Feel free to contribute any tactics below by commenting. The IPA defined propaganda as, "expression of opinion or action by individuals or groups deliberately designed to influence opinions or actions of other individuals or groups with reference to predetermined ends." The first psychological concept that is worth discussing is the Elaboration Likelihood Model of persuasion (ELM), which was developed in the mid 1980s.Distinguished psychologist Richard Petty and celebrated social neuroscientist John Cacioppo developed the model as a way to show how individuals and businesses use two different persuasion routes in hopes of influencing others to act or … Both systems are useful for survival, yet the processes and results they yield are often in competition with each other. Savvy propagandists, Miller and his colleagues realized, draw their power in large part from the fact that their targets are not aware that propaganda is being used on them. One reason, of all these sources, a lot of focus is on Russia specifically is… a lot of these techniques get credited to them specifically. A mind that is not trained to detect and neutralize propaganda is a gullible mind, ripe for the swindle. As Edward Bernays, father of modern propaganda says, “THE media by which special pleaders transmit their messages to the public through propaganda include all the means by which people to-day transmit their ideas to one another. Euphoria can be created by declaring a holiday, making luxury items available, or mounting a military parade with marching bands and patriotic messages. Self-help is essentially propaganda and involves self-indoctrination. Wait… are you appealing to my inate human desire for positive feedback in order to further some agenda? Doublespeak: Say one thing. Paperback. Moreover propaganda may be used to achieve ‘good’ ends. Appeal to the stone (argumentum ad lapidem): A tactic where one dismisses a claim as absurd without demonstrating proof for its absurdity. Transfer: The association of an entity’s positive or negative qualities with another entity to suggest that the latter entity embodies those qualities. Perhaps the most famous case in point dates back to 1937 when—with the political unrest of the depression era still gripping the nation—growing concerns about the American public’s vulnerability to extremist ideologies prompted the liberal philanthropist Edward Filene to fund a proposal by Clyde Miller of Columbia University to create the Institute for Propaganda Analysis (IPA). What you do is take a carefully selected collection of truths, lies, and half-truths that all seem to tell a story (which is actually revised history) and use them to construct a story that eventually supplants the public’s accurate perception of the underlying events. On Manufacturing Consent and Shaping Public Opinion: Propaganda is looking to change your mind, logically there are only so many things it is really going to try to do at its core. TIP: When we talk about propaganda, we often focus on NAZI Germany, Russia, or the West… which is because, you know, those are the entities who came up with most of the worlds propaganda techniques. I ask students to imagine that one of their peers is found murdered in the dorms. Emotional reaction precedes reasoned analysis, like biting must have preceded the evolution of teeth. Bad names, according to IPA, “have ruined reputations, stirred men and women to outstanding accomplishments, sent others to prison cells, and made men mad enough to enter battle and slaughter their fellowmen.”. Audio tactics: Using sounds to depress or excite people and to generally manipulate behavior. “If allow marriage equality, then people will marry their dogs.” This is a jump in logic that is a sort of logical fallacy of reasoning by analogy. Counter: Point out the many other choices and point out that the sides should both be considered (but aren’t inherently equal). What exactly do you mean by that? Yes! Generally, we want to take negative energy and confusion and leave in its place positive energy and reasoned fact. It uses a type of logic, but that logic is based on fallacy and emotion, rather than formal sound and cogent logic. Comes from an old movie called Gas Light where the main character is driven insane by this sort of BS. Although many studies have been done on mimicry, one described by Michael Lynn of Cornell University is particularly interesting. Testimonial: The publicizing of a statement by an expert, authority figure, or celebrity in support of an idea, cause, or product in order to prompt the audience to identify with the person and support the idea or cause or buy the product. Transfer is a device by which the propagandist seeks to transfer onto him or his cause the esteem and respect we have for someone else (celebrity endorsements, anyone?). If you want them saying yes, get them saying “yes.” It is a version of the used car salesperson trick where they get you to agree to something small and then work you into something big. FACT: C. S. Lewis coined the term Bulverism. Rarely is it simply trying to give you useful information without a motive. When dealing with others we should assume the best. And the competition is rigged. A number of propaganda techniques based on social psychological research are used to generate propaganda.Many of these same techniques can be classified as logical fallacies, since propagandists use arguments that, while sometimes convincing, are not necessarily valid. Counter: You could always try bringing up the American revolution, liberty, the bill of rights, individualism, etc. Its all about framing an argument to help people see it from your viewpoint or re-framing an argument (controlling perspective). Stereotyping: The incitement of prejudice by reducing a target group, such as a segment of society or people adhering to a certain religion, to a set of undesirable traits. Classical conditioning: Anchoring one idea or stimulus to another (for example, using emotion to connect A and B, even when A and B don’t connect logically). Old WWII propaganda trying to explain why populism isn’t ideal. A number of techniques which are based on social psychological research are used to generate propaganda. “There’s a sucker born every minute”… don’t be a sucker (and further, we can all be suckers sometimes; one reason that line works because we can all relate to it). This can also involve exaggerating the extent to which a trait is shared. Of course there are left-wing equivalents (I won’t spin this and tell you there are not), and surely there are companies and parts of government who put out their own talking points (especially companies now that we have even more deregulation like Citizens United), but two-or-more wrongs don’t make a right! This is a very popular technique used often. It’s a way to Bask in someone’s Reflected Glory (BIRGing, in social psychology parlance), to have another’s legitimacy confer legitimacy onto the propagandist. Obfuscation: Intentionally vague and ambiguous messaging, intended to confuse the audience as it seeks to interpret the message, or to use incomprehensibility to exclude a wider audience. Everything from national anthems, to catchy jingles, to distortions. Get the help you need from a therapist near you–a FREE service from Psychology Today. A classical example of this sort of white-hat propaganda (or book of influence techniques in this case) is Dale Carnegie’s classic How to Win Friends and Influence People. Cult of personality: The creating of a cult around a personality. In our justice system, as in our political system, we can expect that advocates for differing sides will use—and be subjected to—emotional manipulation to predetermined ends. Propaganda strategies describe complex sets of tactics that are used to manipulate public opinion. Propaganda is information (delivered through any medium) designed to persuade, manipulate emotion, and change opinion rather than to inform using logical truths and facts. We survive and thrive best in stable, well-organized groups. Counter: Don’t get demoralized, use the opportunity to boost morale. An ad for a new video game, a friendly and catchy name for a great policy, a little name-calling to denote negative influencers. According to William W. 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