1. Socrates then engages with Agathon who believes Socrates is trying to playfully threaten him because his sensibility is greater than many fools, and Socrates compels him to agree that he would show shame before the wise, but perhaps not before the many. Socrates arrives at the party late, as he was lost in thought on the neighboring porch. Passage 197D, the concluding passage of the speech, is the most prominent example of this. Commentary on Plato Symposium. Socrates’ critique of his peers (considered above) was an explicit statement to the effect that the previous speeches did not aim for truth (Symposium 198d7–e6). In Course Hero. Again quoting Diotima, he describes the first stage in this process as love of a single physical body. With this in mind, it is Socrates’ speech to the group that becomes most intriguing as attempts to subvert all the previous points on the personality of love, the roles of women and the honorability of sexual love, only to end up reinforcing them after all. This suggests that any nuggets of truth found therein cannot be preserved because they are considered to carry a … . Samples of our experts work can be found here.All opinions and conclusions belong to the authors, who sent us this essay. Plato’s Symposium explores the nature of love through several different telling’s of what love is by philosophers of the time. Diotima is a fictitious prophetess whom Socrates invents in his speech at the symposium. Before he begins his speech, however, Socrates lures Agathon into one of the dialogues for which he is famous, asking him one question after another about the nature of love. ‘Now I’ll let you go. Symposium is a beautiful narration of a high-society dinner party in Athens in 416 BC, in which all guests, including Aristodemus, Phaedrus, Pausanias, Eryximachus, Alcibiades, Aristophanes, Agathon and of course Socrates each give a short speech eulogising love. The structure of questioning foreshadows that a Platonic Form that will be discussed by Diotima (Form of Beauty). All the speakers do not agree on the definition and features of love. resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel. They may happen to be true, but this is just a happy accident. Have study documents to share about Symposium? Not affiliated with Harvard College. The Symposium is a philosophical text by Plato dated c. 385–370 BC. The strictly dialectical part of Socrates' speech (199 C—201 C), which takes the form of a cross-questioning of Agathon, consists, in the main, of a hostile critique and refutation of his speech. Download a PDF to print or study offline. Other explanations revolve around the existence of Diotima-like figures in literature or drama, or around the notion of procreation as a feminine activity. Aristophanes, a comedic poet, gave a speech which was overall sad, but with lighthearted elements. A preliminary overview of Socrates’s speech in the Symposiumconfirms many of the suggestions that we have made in the introduction and the previous two chapters. Apollodorus relates to an unnamed companion a story he learned from Aristodemus about a symposium, or dinner-party, given in honor of the tragedian Agathon. Instead, Socrates claims that the typical definition of love does not exist and instead praises wisdom. Socrates in the Symposium, when Alcibiades challenged him to drink two quarts of wine, could have done so or not as he chose, but the diners-out of Horace's day had no such freedom. Symposium is a series of speeches on Love, made by the guests, Socrates, Phaedrus, Pausanias, Eryximachus, Aristophanes and Alcibiades and their host, the young Agathon. They establish that Love desires what it does not have, something would not desire what it already has, but rather that which it needs. If you want to pay for essay for unique writing Analysis of Pausanias’ and Socrates’ Speeches in Plato’s ‘Symposium’, just click Order button. To prove Love’s wisdom, Agathon equates Love’s poetry, making those in love poets, the production of animals, and his effect on artisans and professionals as being wise. Diotima and Demeter as Mystagogues in Plato's. In his speech at the symposium, Socrates resorts to his favorite dialectical method of maieutics. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of Symposium by Plato. ... Socrates the Lover in Plato's Symposium - Philosophy Core Concepts - Duration: 15:02. He speaks often of the master of the drinking, who was always appointed to dictate how much each man was to drink. As such, each deserves a separate discussion: see "Main Ideas" for an exploration of the two concepts and their relation to the Symposium overall. While his speech has been considered one of the worst of the group, he does set the reader up for Diotima like the others, as the first speaker to explicitly distinguish between beauty and goodness. Symposium It is well known that Plato, a devoted student of Socrates, chronicled many of Socrates' speeches and conversations. Socrates Quotes that will help you improve yourself. 78-82) distinguishing a higher, noble kind of eros from a … Diotima's description of Love's parentage offers a third alternative to the "common" and "celestial" origin stories recounted earlier. Aristophanes. "Symposium Study Guide." The Symposium (Greek: Συμπόσιον) is a Socratic dialogue written by Xenophon in the late 360's B.C. Berdiaev’s position bears a remote similarity to Pausianias’ speech in the Symposium (Rouse pp. Symposium and The Death of Socrates by Plato Bücher gebraucht und günstig kaufen. Love is also not a god, Diotima and Socrates agree. Das Symposion (altgriechisch Συμπόσιον Sympósion „Gastmahl“ oder „Trinkgelage“, latinisiert Symposium) ist ein in Dialogform verfasstes Werk des griechischen Philosophen Platon.Darin berichtet ein Erzähler vom Verlauf eines Gastmahls, das schon mehr als ein Jahrzehnt zurückliegt. This essay will refer to ‘Erôs’ throughout interchangeably with ‘Love’, as Erôs is the Greek God of Love, or of passionate desire. "Symposium Study Guide." Does Plato's Symposiumseem to validate or to undercut Foucault and/or Halperin in the matter of whether people generally have, most places and most times, understood sexuality more or less the same way? The symposium comes to an end when a large drunken group shows up. Agathon begins by explaining how he plans to shift his speech from the previous by describing the nature of Love and celebrating him, rather than congratulating humans on the good things that come from Love. As a student of Gorgias himself, this implies self-parody by Agathon. 201d-204c Quotes. In his speech at the symposium, Socrates resorts to his favorite dialectical method of maieutics. In his article, entitled "Why is Diotima a Woman?" Glaucon How does Plato, using integrative thinking, ultimately find a way to connect erotic love, beauty and the absolute into a unified whole? For a defense of the view that Socrates’ speech in Xenophon’s Symposium 8 was composed in imitation of Plato’s Symposium, see Thesleff 1978 and Bowen 1998:8–9. Agathon’s speech was more clearly comedic. 40-47, we have two series of questions: first Socrates questions Agathon, then Diotima questions Socrates. Socrates praises all of the speakers, but says that they did not actually praise Love, although they appeared to do so. Socrates’ speech within the Symposium falls short of being a truly convincing account of Erôs, mainly due to the fact that it does not deliver an explanation of what Erôs is but only where it comes from and its purpose in a spiritual sense, but is can still be considered successful in its own right. Socrates confesses that he has realized that he has no business in trying to eulogize Love, since clearly he knows … The speeches of Socrates, Alcibiades, and Aristophanes are of main focus, as their similarities and differences help the reader to decide the truth of the nature of love. A comedic speech, it illustrated Diotima’s speech, importantly likening Socrates to Eros. He has “the biggest share of moderation.” Moderation is power over pleasures and passions, and since no pleasure is stronger than Love, weaker pleasures are under Love’s power. Summary Socrates 's discourse on love is the centerpiece of the dialogue and, in part, a refutation of Agathon 's one-sided speech on the topic. He praises Agathon’s speech, saying it reminded him of Gorgias. Socrates: the protagonist of the symposium; Alcibiades: Socrates' admirer; THE HOUSE OF AGATHON (416 BC.) Symposium essays are academic essays for citation. Accessed December 5, 2020. https://www.coursehero.com/lit/Symposium/. An jenem denkwürdigen Tag hielten die Teilnehmer der Reihe nach Reden über die Erotik. This "something" is beauty itself, pure and abstract, unattached to any person, object, or idea. This, in turn, will lead the lover to an appreciation of physical beauty of all sorts, at which point obsessing over the beauty of any one person will seem "ridiculous and petty." Which of these steps is crucial when doing a close reading of nonfiction? Course Hero is not sponsored or endorsed by any college or university. ISBN-10: 1853264792 In it, Socrates and a few of his companions attend a symposium (a lighthearted dinner party at which Greek aristocrats could have discussions and enjoy entertainment) hosted by … The speeches are to be given in praise of Eros, the god of love and desire. This, for example, adds a layer to the portrayal of Socrates, underneath Agathon’s jabs at him. This is done in order to … The Symposium is a tragedy for an analogous reason: it contains an imitation of one part of such a life, namely, what the Protagoras terms a “symposium of beautiful and good men” who “test each other’s mettle in mutual argument” by asking and answering questions (347d3–348a9). A shift in focus occurs in his speech again, from Aristophanes’ human conception of Love, to Agathon’s purely divine conception of goodness and focus in praising Love, the god. 43. How is Agathon's speech similar/dissimilar to the earlier speeches? Berdiaev has a dramatic sense of the higher and lower in man. Web. Symposium is a series of speeches on Love, made by the guests, Socrates, Phaedrus, Pausanias, Eryximachus, Aristophanes and Alcibiades and their host, the young Agathon. Aristophanes' Speech from Plato's Symposium read by A Poetry Channel - Duration: 12:30. (2017, September 20). Despite this speech, Agathon then lies down next to Socrates, much to the chagrin of Alcibiades. Being quite drunk when he speaks, Agathon is trying to get laughs over all else, focusing on an unrestrained parody of Gorgianic style, adding double entendres, particularly when referring to Socrates. The men include the philosopher Socrates, the general and political figure Alcibiades, and the comic playwright Aristophanes. Strong critics of Agathon however have referred to his writing as being simply imitation. Also, if Love was the oldest, the violent histories told by Hesiod and Parmenides would not have occurred, since Love brings peace. The true erastes starts by loving the physical beauty of an individual and then, by a series of steps which include the love of beauty in souls, On a deeper level, she continues, this drive to seek out goodness and beauty represents an attempt to secure immortality for oneself, either via offspring (physical procreation) or through one's legacy as an artist, philosopher, or statesman (mental procreation). Socrates deduces that this means that Love is not beautiful, to which Agathon agrees, taking back what he stated earlier. After Socrates’ speech, Aristodemus said, while the others congratulated him, Aristophanes was trying to make a point, because Socrates had referred to his speech at some stage. Plato constantly challenges the tragedy-comedy dichotomy in the Symposium, and Agathon’s speech is a major element in this challenge. Nancy Evans - 2006 - Hypatia 21 (2):1 - 27. 20 Sep. 2017. In what follows, he claims to be repeating the views of the priestess Diotima, his mentor in matters of love. Socrates praises Agathon’s speech once more, saying he will also explore the questions of the qualities of Love himself. “Our prayers should be for blessings in general, for God knows best what is good for us.” – Socrates. September 20, 2017. Even Timaeus is an esoteric account of the political. On pp. During the event, the guests decided to hold a speech contest, in which each of them delivered a lecture in praise of Eros, the god of Love. De amore: Sócrates y Alcibíades en el Banquete de Platón. Course Hero. The guests decide not to get drunk, but drinking a little and discuss about love. As such, his benefit to humanity arises not from his own beauty and goodness, but from the way he gets people to seek after those qualities. It is telling that in the early hours of the night, Socrates speaks to Agathon and Aristophanes about the importance of mastering both comedy and tragedy in writing, as they are the people most fit to hear this, and those who switched roles for the night. Ultimately, Halperin concludes, "to ask why Diotima is a woman is to pose a question that ... has no answer.". The heroes of ancient myth, Diotima asserts, were all "in love with immortality.". Among his guests were Socrates, Phaedrus, Pausanias, Eryximachus, Aristophanes, and Aristodemus. Socrates asks what he is then, to which she responds he is in between mortal and immortal; a spirit. Socrates now begins to question the truth of Agathon’s speech. However, he insists that parts of the speech are meant in earnest, supported by Plato’s observation in other writings that stripping poetry of its devices leaves only speeches. Socrates now begins to question the truth of Agathon’s speech. Agreeing with Agathon that love is deeply connected to the ideas of goodness and beauty, Socrates nonetheless insists the connection is more complex than Agathon has suggested. Notably, Love, as described by Diotima, is not a uniform mixture of "poor" and "rich" qualities, but is constantly vacillating between the two. In Plato’s Symposium, Socrates’ eulogy, though delivered with the stated intent of praising love, is not truly about love at all. Before Agathon can respond to this final question, Phaedrus interrupts and beckons Agathon to give his speech praising eros. Many of the main characters take the opportunity to depart and return home; Socrates, however, stays awake until dawn. Symposium and The Death of Socrates im Zustand Gebraucht kaufen. SOCRATES FINAL SPEECH CHOOSING DEATH BEFORE DISHONOR WORLD FUTURE FUND INTRODUCTION TO SPEECH In 399 B.C, the Athenian government sentenced to death its … Its legacy has been far reaching, inspiring religion and mysticism, to visions of art, the good, and the beautiful. Symposium is central in Plato’s philosophy, since it talks about Love and Ideas. In Plato's Symposium, a dinner party was held with the discussion of love as the main topic. Unlike Agathon, only some attendees praise Socrates’s speech, but before Aristophanes can respond to the claims levied against him, a loud hammering is heard from the … therefore, he starts by describing the qualities of the god. He asks if Love is the love of nothing or something, to which Agathon answers the latter, and then Socrates says that Love desires that which loves it. Love is Brave, having a hold on Ares, the god of war, since Aphrodite has power over Ares. A paradox arises where he tries to praise a deity, even though that deity is anthropomorphic, in terms of virtue, but to complete his argument abstracts from man. This is done in order to prepare the way for his own discourse on Love. Course Hero. Aristodemus: “a little fellow, who never wore any shoes” is the man who told the tale to Apollodorus and whom Apollodorus is quoting; he was at the symposium, but did not deliver a speech (encomium). The symposium we are invited to took place at Agathon’s house. He, like Pausanias, is unconcerned with heterosexuality almost completely. Upload them to earn free Course Hero access! "Symposium by Plato The Speech of Agathon and Socrates Questions Agathon Summary and Analysis". Agathon invites his guests, to make a speech in praise of love. Once again, Plato juxtaposes tragedy and comedy. From there, the lover's focus must shift from physical to mental beauty—the beauty inherent in creative thinking and sound reasoning. This is the view taken by most modern scholars, but it raises additional questions: for starters, as David Halperin puts it in a noteworthy 1990 essay, "Why did Plato select a woman to initiate Socrates into the mysteries of a male, homoerotic desire?" Speeches of Socrates. Love is never the cause of victim of injustice, since violence never touches him. Sokrates erklärt scherzend die ganze Rede für ein wohlberechnetes Manöver, um ihn (den Sokrates) mit dem Agathon zu entzweien, was zu verhüten er einen schleunigen Platzwechsel bewirkt, der den Agathon an die Seite des Sokrates bringt. After all present applaud for Agathon, Socrates tells Eryximachus, reminding him he had said he would have nothing to say after Agathon spoke. Agathon continues on to describe the “moral character,” translated from arete, of Love. After Socrates’ speech, Aristodemus said, while the others congratulated him, Aristophanes was trying to make a point, because Socrates had referred to his speech at some stage. Gods are beautiful and happy, Socrates would not deny. Symposium Study Guide. Through the metaphor of… read analysis of Diotima of Mantinea. Agathon talks about what love is, rather than what it does. Copyright © 1999 - 2020 GradeSaver LLC. follower of Socrates from Phalerum; he was only 13 when the banquet took place. Socrates’ critique of his peers (considered above) was an explicit statement to the effect that the previous speeches did not aim for truth (Symposium 198d7–e6). Unlike Price, Rowe thinks that, in the Symposium, Plato is heavily invested in this moral psychology. Socrates and Aristodemus will attend a banquet at Agathon, with Aristophanes, Appolodore, Pausanias and Eryximachus. Is there any evidence in Socrates of the type of love Nygren calls agape? Glaucon I’ll try to restate for you the account of Love that I once heard … What is left underneath the skillful prose disguised as parody might be a complete lack of knowledge. Course Hero, Inc. As a reminder, you may only use Course Hero content for your own personal use and may not copy, distribute, or otherwise exploit it for any other purpose. Socrates arrives at the party late because he had been lost in contemplation. GradeSaver, 13 January 2015 Web. This is not the occasion to argue such a claim systematically with regard to all the early speeches, but I shall later take the opportunity to support it with examples. 44. Be clear and complete as to the essentials of each view. In discussing the virtue of Love, he describes the characteristics it is generally divided into, which the previous speeches have described: courage (Phaedrus), justice (Pausanias), temperance (Eryximachus) and he substitutes wisdom for piety (Aristophanes). That man, asked him about the speeches regarding the concept of Love or the god Eros, which were basically based on the accounts of Socrates… 462, §117c). The questioning sets up Diotima’s speech, introducing the idea that love must be a lover of wisdom, to be nuanced by Diotima. Love is said to be the teacher of artisans and professionals, making them successful. Do such modern concepts of "homosexual" or "heterosexual" apply here? Gods and men interact through spirits, … Plato describes how starting a dialogue with Agathon and asking him skillfully connected with each other questions, Socrates gradually forces the poet to give up of many things that he had told before. “Might makes right” is a statement that might be heard..... ? Thus, there are some similarities and differences between the speech of Agathon and the one of Socrates that I will try to put in evidence in this essay. Agreeing with Agathon that love is deeply connected to the ideas of goodness and beauty, Socrates nonetheless insists the connection is more complex than Agathon has suggested. In the last several paragraphs of his speech, Socrates charts out a step-by-step ascent from love of physical beauty to love of beauty in its highest and most eternal forms. Socrates questions Agathon's speech, suggesting that Agathon has spoken about the object of Love, rather than Love itself. Everyone was required to make a speech, an ode to Love, the spirit. The Question and Answer section for Symposium by Plato is a great Course Hero, "Symposium Study Guide," September 20, 2017, accessed December 5, 2020, https://www.coursehero.com/lit/Symposium/. 42. This is how Socrates responds to Agathon’s speech. In brief, Agathon finds himself forced to admit that love is a kind of desire, and something can be desired only if it is missing. ISBN: 9781853264795. Symposium is also a political text as are all of Plato’s dialogues. Alcibiades´s speech is an important part of the Symposium, because it serves as a companion to Socrates´s speech that precedes it, which is the Ladder of Love. Symposium study guide contains a biography of Plato, literature essays, a complete e-text, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. Plato describes how starting a dialogue with Agathon and asking him skillfully connected with each other questions, Socrates gradually forces the poet to give up of many things that he had told before. Socrates's discourse on love is the centerpiece of the dialogue and, in part, a refutation of Agathon's one-sided speech on the topic. This applies to qualities that are not permanent. Suduiko, Aaron ed. It depicts a friendly contest of extemporaneous speeches given by a group of notable men attending a banquet. Introductory Dialogue and The Speech of Phaedrus, The Speech of Agathon and Socrates Questions Agathon, Diotima Questions Socrates and The Speech of Diotima, Alcibiades' Entrance, The Speech of Alcibiades, and Final Dialogue, Sexuality in Plato’s Symposium and Ancient Greece, Aristophanes' Influence in Contemporary Times: Hedwig and the Angry Inch, Read the Study Guide for Symposium by Plato…, The Impossibility of Evil Without Ignorance and the Progression Toward Good, View Wikipedia Entries for Symposium by Plato…. He quotes, with approval, Anthony Price's assessment of desire in Socrates' speech, "we must take the background assumption to be Socratic: happiness is the ultimate goal of all desire" (11). Suddenly, there was a loud noise of knocking at the front door, which sounded like revelers, and they heard the voice of a flute-girl. The Ladder of Love is a highly complex, abstract treatise about beauty, which bring up the idea that love is about pursuing philosophy and the beautiful things, not sexual intercourse. … Like all the Platonic dialogues, the work, which is very literary, consists mainly of speeches. In other words, “Love is the love of something” and he loves what he needs in the present. The speeches. A person who is tall would not desire height, as they will be tall for their whole life, but someone who is strong could desire strength, since it is not necessary that they will be strong in the future. Lorena Rojas Parma - 2011 - Areté. Socrates' speech in the Symposium ends with a description of the scala amoris, the ascent towards the highest form of love. (PDF) Plato Handout: Socrates' (and Diotima's) Speech in the Symposium | Gregory Sadler - Academia.edu Handout supplied to my students as we work through Plato's Symposium, focused particularly on the content in the sixth speech, given by Socrates … Aristophanes was considered to be the most accomplished writer of comedies in the ancient world. Love, says Socrates at the symposium – is an ardent desire for something. The Symposium is about love, eros more specifically. Based on the Symposium, in Ancient Greece around 416 BC, Agathon hosted an all-male dinner party. Then he turns to Phaedrus, telling him this is the speech he has prepared, admitting part of it was in fun, but part of it was still moderately serious.
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