The education ministry wants to look at offering courses like engineering, medicine and law in the students’ mother tongue. International Journal of Educational Development 2003, 23: 127–144. Through mother tongue, a child gains a whole cultural heritage, which will, to a large extent, determine his further thinking, feelings, desires and attitudes. You can select from: All the discourses outlined in the previous section are manifest in MTE literature and research on Kenya. Article 350A (Facilities for instruction in mother-tongue at primary stage) provides that it shall be the endeavour of every State and of every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother-tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to … Naya Rivera’s Ex-Husband and Sister broke their Silence, Tana Mongeau and Erika Costell apologized after them Partying, Know the Camila Mendes View on Palm Springs Trailer, Charli D’Amelio Nose Surgery: Know The Facts, Kris Jenner on Kanye West: Kanye West Tweet About Kris Jenner, Know About Paris Hilton Upcoming Documentary “This Is Paris”. Neustupny JV: Towards a paradigm for language planning. 1999. The preceding discussion illustrates this observation. “With several psychological experiments globally, the fact that primary education must be conducted in the mother tongue has been established which leads to thoughtfulness, better memory and improvement in fundamental thinking. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0, https://doi.org/10.1186/s13616-014-0011-4. Mother tongue education (MTE) has been a subject of rigorous debate for more than half a century, in both industrialised and developing societies. This is usually the language that children speak at home with their family. There is need for ethnographic and phenomenological research to investigate and document what works and what does not work for MTE in different polities. Instead, Mother Tongue Studies is generally taught as an optional subject outside the regular school day. An important aspect in classifying any claim as a human right is that anything classified as a human right has priority over other claims of right. Neustupny JV: Some general aspects of ‘language’ problems and ‘language’ policy in developing societies. The two reforms led to a net increase of 0.7 years of schooling. A prescriptive rendition of what should be the best MTE policy for different polities. In one of the earliest studies to ever explore the issue of quotas in African education, Clignet (), p. 431 – 432 documents that in pre-independence Africa, many territories tried to obtain an ethnically even distribution of school populations by introducing a system of ethnic quotas or by placing new schools in regions predominantly occupied by underprivileged peoples. In an interesting commentary on the impact of the quota system on language-in-education in Kenya, Amutabi (), p. 135 submits that “the quota system is blamed for the creeping of vernacular into secondary schools at a very alarming rate. A resurgent MTE discourse will greatly benefit from language management. Blaug M: Economics of education in developing countries: current trends and new priorities. Another contribution to language management theory and practice is Spolsky (). This was the case with the Beecher Report published in 1949.  As such, parents may opt for their children who have the ability and interest, to pursue mother tongue at a higher level in Primary 5. To make a claim on the basis of human rights, the following criteria must be met: Realisation of the claimed right is necessary for a person or group to be able to achieve their full humanity, in common with others. It is about creating a more equitable, respectful and just society for everyone. In many polities, the political infrastructure is controlled by the elites. He said that academic research has proved that children who pursue education in their mother tongue at the primary level have better comprehension skills, … There are many contingent factors that contribute to the increase in ethnic consciousness and poor performance in foreign languages even in polities that do not have a quota system in place. However, social justice is not necessarily about equality. Part four interrogates the positive role that is played by primary teacher education and the quota system in MTE in Kenya. 1 of 2005 also paid attention to effective teacher development and utilisation (Ministry of Education, Science and Technology – Kenya MOEST ). A. Fishman (Ed. This curriculum was first introduced in 1986 and later revised in 1994 and in 2004 after the review of primary school curriculum. PubMed Google Scholar. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N. J.; 1981. Even small countries in Europe use their languages as languages of instruction, even if the children have to learn another language such as English or French. The key component of the new national education policy proposed by the central government is that the mother tongue should be the medium of primary education. Another compelling discourse in MTE is the development discourse, both in its traditional nuance that conceptualised development as ‘modernisation’ and the contemporary nuance of development as ‘human development’. The list of TTCs in Kenya is shown in Table 1. Such an acknowledgement will signal a new dawn for MTE in the developing world. Marginalisation of African languages is an inevitable outcome since they are not used for meaningful education. The Eastern Cape education department has pioneered the implementation of Mother Tongue Based Bilingual Education (MTBBE) and wants other provinces to use it to replicate the success of the programme. In Languages and education in Africa: a comparative and transdisciplinary analysis. In the Karnataka Lok Sewa Commission, government appointments should give more opportunities to those who have studied in Kannada. The idea of using the mother tongue as the medium of instruction in primary school is not new to the Indian education system. Those who study in Kannada medium should be given more opportunity in government appointments: says Basavaraja Matti. Further, mother tongue is also the basis upon which all other learning is anchored. MTE discourse is critical and is bound to remain so for a long time especially in the developing world. Most importantly, it allows teachers to communicate in a language that children understand. Further, language management requires a detailed understanding of multilingualism and social structure, as well as of multidimensional social and demographic space (Spolsky ), p. 260. As Amutabi () documents, the quota system remains one of the most controversial inclusions in Kenya’s education system. Mwaniki M: Language planning in South Africa: towards a language management approach (unpublished Ph.D. Thesis). The network of TTCs was established by government as part of its commitment to providing qualified, competent and adequate teachers to all primary schools in the country. River-Seine, Melbourne; 1985:44–64. In Prague Linguistic Circle Papers 3. This paper analyzes each reform, the introductions of mother tongue and free primary education, and quantifies the full impact of the changes to the education system generated by these policies. Journal of International Education and Leadership 2011, 1(1):1–13. 2005. The language of our mother is more important than anything else. 2006. Part of This practice has led to poor scholastic attainment, often manifested in high repeat or failure rate, poor performance in examinations, and maladjustment to the world of work. The logic of the primacy of mother tongue in teaching and learning is premised on the understanding that mother tongue is the most effective vehicle or carrier of all other things that the child is expected to learn from school. Addressing the Rajya Sabha on Thursday, Union Human Resources Development Minister Ramesh Pokhriyal Nishank said it was more effective to provide primary education in the mother tongue. Policy, especially public policy, underlies much of the research and writing around MTE. Central Bureau of Statistics, Nairobi. Admittedly, quality teacher education and the quota system intersect with MTE within formal institutions, i.e. The emergence of multiculturalism has tended to challenge this perspective, but not to replace it. In the final draft, it is said that the suggestions given by the public would be adopted. If people are the proper focus of development efforts, then these efforts should be geared to enhancing the range of choices in all areas of human endeavour for every human being. In this regard, the primary aim of this study was to reveal the views of postgraduate students (Masters (MA)/PhD) studying at a graduate school of educational sciences on mother tongue education and the applicability of mother tongue education in Turkey. The Journal of Modern African Studies 1980, 18(2):201–236. These languages were very few given that the country has approximately forty distinct languages. The quota system in Kenya’s education has been a target of disparaging critique since it was introduced in the mid 1980s. Closely related to the historiographical discourse in MTE is the comparative discourse. Primary school students are able to take Higher Mother Tongue in Primary 5. Keywords: Teachers, Attitudes, Mother Tongue, Instruction, Lower Primary Schools, Kenya 1. Despite many studies that show that it makes good sense to begin a child’s education in his or her own language, the age-old tradition of teaching a child in a language other than the first language or teaching in a child’s first language only in the lower classes of primary school still persists in many African countries. Among general didactic principles, which include totality, individualisation, interest and motivation, perception, environmental teaching, and selection, mother-tongue teaching features prominently. Despite polities in the developing world pursuing unilingual and/or bilingual policies which are largely inimical to MTE, multilingualism has not vanished in this part of the world. 10.1016/j.ijedudev.2008.05.001. Language to be used in representations for redress of grievances and Facilities for instruction in mother-tongue at primary stage are defined under Article 350 and 350A of Constitution of India 1949. Pupils who are weaker in their mother tongue are receiving help from a new programme that weaves more activities and games into lessons. Rather, this overview seeks to outline the dominant themes in the discourse on MTE. Since then, a lot of research has been done on MTE and literature on the subject abounds. Edited by: Lin AMY, Martin PW. 10.1080/01436597908419407. The EM1/EM2/EM3 streaming system previously, has been replaced with a 'subject-based' banding scheme. Then there are provincial schools in the middle, and finally the largest and lowest ranking group are the district schools. Morley L, Leach F, Lugg R: Democratising higher education in Ghana and Tanzania: opportunity structures and social inequalities. Many African countries still use colonial languages as a medium of instruction at different learning levels. UNDP. This is especially a problem in multilingual settings where children grow up with multiple mother tongues; (2) definition of 'a language'. Local and international research has found that children learn to speak, read, and write more quickly in their first language, and can pick up a second and third language more easily if taught in their first language. First, because the quota system is used in the recruitment of teacher trainees it ensures that all Kenya’s linguistic communities are represented in the cohort of approximately 8,500 teacher trainees who join and graduate from the 21 TTCs every year. Noting that the idea that the entire world is one family forms the basis of India's culture, the vice president said secularism was in the DNA of every Indian. As a practice, language management is a critical and creative deployment of strategies designed to address language-related challenges and harness language resources, especially in multilingual settings. makers review their position with regard to Mother tongue with a view to promoting it both as a language of instruction and a subject. In F. D. Beer, H. Swanepoel (Eds. Workshop on the training of trainers in educational planning for English speaking countries of eastern and southern Africa. The use of mother tongue as medium of instruction during one’s early years of schooling, results in improved … Cape Town, Longman Penguin Southern Africa (Pty) Ltd; 1982. Language management is not a valueless, objective ‘scientific’ process” (Neustupny and Nekvapil ), p. 186. “Some of these choices are the result of management, reflecting conscious and explicit efforts by language managers to control the choices” (Spolsky ), p. 1. use mother tongue in teaching mathematics in lower primary school classes. As a part-discipline of pedagogics, “didactics is scientific reflection centring on educative teaching-learning acts in the school and the related aspects such as didactic principles (teaching principles), teaching and learning materials (knowledge) development and teaching methods” (Duminy and Sohnge ), p. 22. The government should educate the Kannada media without closing the Kannada schools. The claimed right is seen either as applying to all of humanity, and is something that the person or group claiming the right wishes to apply to all people anywhere, or as applying to people from specific disadvantaged or marginalised groups for whom realisation of that right is essential to their achieving their full human potential. Bhuvaneshwari Devi’s portrait was paid floral tributes during the event. This is precisely what linguists and educationists have been advocating for Africa. Provisions under these Articles are: Article 350 of Constitution of India "Language to be used in representations for redress of grievances" He made these remarks during a Kannada Rajyotsava celebration held at Hubli-Dharwad city. It was pointed out by the politicians that this new directive would give the local people an opportunity to fully develop the schools in their region, knowing that they would benefit them more than anybody else. TTCs are financed primarily through government grants and student subsidies. “There is no opposition to learning English,” he said. A 1985 Presidential directive therefore stipulated that each school admits 85% of its students from the local area. From this perspective, multiculturalism is a social doctrine that distinguishes itself as a positive alternative for policies of assimilation, connoting recognition of the citizenship rights and cultural identities of ethnic minority groups and, more generally, an affirmation of the value of cultural diversity (Kymlycka ). The T.K.K (Tujifunze Kusoma Kikwetu – Let us learn our mother tongue) series were introduced in 15 mother tongues in 1968. Further, the human rights discourse in MTE holds the view that MTE is essential for people from the minorities and the marginalised to achieve full human potential. schools. In more general terms, the study of education is called pedagogics. In MIDP IV: Report on activities in the Xhariep (2008–2010). She has been instrumental in making sure the content on the site is clear and concise for our readers. Each suggestion is analyzed in detail. This is especially a problem in multilingual settings where children grow up with multiple mother tongues; (2) definition of 'a language'. Closely related to the human rights discourse in MTE is the social justice discourse. Dovlo D: The brain drain in Africa: an emerging challenge to health professionals’ education. The aim of this paper was to make a preliminary evaluation of the impact of using a local or familiar language as a … Haines R: Development theory. 10.1080/14664200308668057. Kenya education sector support programme: Delivering quality education and training to all Kenyans. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. The government should take appropriate action in this regard. The core courses among these are: Professional studies, English, Kiswahili, Religious Studies, Mathematics, Science and Physical Education. Nithi - After graduating from NYU with a degree in BA and MA. Oxford University Press, Cape Town; 2009. There are many benefits associated with an education that takes into account children’s mother tongues: Children learn better and faster in a language they can understand (preventing delays in learning) They enjoy school more, they feel more at home Pupils tend to show increased self-esteem Neustupny JV: Post-structural approaches to language. Finally, “the results of organised management are again transferred to discourse: without correcting individual discourse, the whole management process would make little sense” (Neustupny and Nekvapil ), p. 185. Symposium Books, Oxford; 2009:13–14. ), 1972. Below are the links to the authors’ original submitted files for images. In this Mother Tongue Support Programme, Primary 3 … These broad contours of the debates and controversies around quotas in education in Africa find further corroboration in Tanye () and Morley et al. A fourth feature is the insistence on the recognition of the multiplicity of interests within a community. In a society committed to the ideals of social justice, it is recognised that fair treatment and equal opportunities for everyone can only be brought about by imposing restrictions on the behaviour of some individuals or groups (Furlong and Cartmel ), pp. Importance of Mother Tongue in Education The author declares that he has no competing interests. It is only through purposeful and systematic teaching that the linguistic efficiency and skill brought from home can be heightened and extended. The Sessional Paper No. As the number of English first-language speakers is only the fourth highest of all the language groups in South Africa, it follows that the majority of children in the country are taught in a language that is not their mother-tongue.School subjects in South Africa are either taught in English from grade 1 all the way through to matric or the first three years of education are presented in the children’s first language (any of the other ten official o… For the purposes of this discussion, the dominant discourses in MTE can be identified as the historiographical/comparative discourse; the pedagogics/didactics discourse; the policy discourse; the human rights/social justice discourse; and the development discourse. The CJI said mother tongue is important for foundation and that India is perhaps the only country where education does not start in a child’s mother tongue. It states in part: “The language of the catchment area (mother tongue) shall be used for child care, pre-primary education and … Primary, Secondary, education, instruction, mother tongue. In other words, policy makers may fail to act and/or take deliberate decisions not to act. The book shows how the mother-tongue education program was planned, organized, and implemented. Introduction The language policy in Kenya embraces a bilingual approach to education where the child’s Mother Tongue (or In 2009, the Department of Education (DepEd) recognized the benefits of teaching children using their mother tongue or first language. Amutabi MN: Political interference in the running of education in post-independence Kenya: a critical retrospection. Even British colonial language policy, when formulated, also supported the use of the mother tongue in early primary education. In addition, there are fewer children left out of the school of the medium of teaching is in their mother tongue. Secondly, with the quota system being in place in the recruitment of teachers where the responsibility of teacher recruitment is delegated to school committees of primary schools, the tendency of school committees is to recruit teachers who hail from the catchment area of the school. In 2014, after a two-decade-old legal battle, the Supreme Court held that imposition of the mother tongue as the medium of instruction in primary classes in … The study of a policy usually involves tracing multiple interactions among many individuals, many groups, and many institutions. In this comparative endeavour, this discourse is alive to the dialectics of history and MTE in different polities. The historiographical discourse on MTE in the former colonised world takes cognisance of the disruptive nature of colonialism and colonial languages to the education systems of former colonial polities – with polities defined as autonomous nation-states with specific and entrenched forms of government. Language Planning Newsletter 1983, 9(4):1–4. Primary Education in the Mother Tongue The key component of the new national education policy proposed by the central government is that the mother tongue should be the medium of primary education. 10.1007/s10780-008-9058-z, Ukiwo U: Education, horizontal inequalities and ethnic relations in Nigeria. One of the dominant discourses in MTE is what can be characterised as the historiographical/comparative discourse. Amutabi () further documents that the quota system promotes regionalism because it encourages localised approaches to problems and it provides the incubation and fertile ground for regional or ethnic nationalism. To reverse this trend in the developing world, there is need for MTE research that understands the intricacies of public policy processes that underpin MTE with the view of illustrating that MTE does not necessarily undermine the power of the elites, but rather serves the greater good of preparing the active citizens in a modernising democratic state. It had said that local schools were likely to produce strong local and tribal feelings, which are destructive of a sense of nationhood. Current Issues in Language Planning 2003, 4(3):181–366. According to Global Partnership for Education, “some educators argue that … John Benjamins, Amsterdam/Philadelphia; 1999:275–286. However, school children in this region very rarely have chances to receive their education in the mother tongue. Mother tongue education (MTE) has been a subject of rigorous debate for more than half a century, in both industrialised and developing societies. 87 – 88: Policy is larger than a decision. His research focuses on sociolinguistics and Language Management in Africa. A number of factors may militate against education in the mother tongue: (1) difficulty in determining the mother tongue. The report would be submitted to the Minister in a month. Ife J: Human rights and social work: Towards rights-based practice. The fears of a multiplicity of languages and the uneconomic cost of teaching in several languages, which are often invoked to counter the feasibility of education in indigenous languages, have been shown to be pseudo problems, as strategies can be, and have been, devised for selection and development of languages as well as for production of teaching materials at relatively reasonable cost (Bamgbose , p. 13). Report of the UNESCO meeting of specialists, 1951: The use of vernacular languages in education. In these polities, elites [who are often a creation of an educational, economic and political system premised on Western values] often use mother tongue for political mobilisation, but revert back to other languages, especially Western languages, for the business of governance. New Delhi: Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) and National Institutes of Technology (NITs) will start offering engineering courses in mother tongue for the academic session 2021-22, the Ministry of Education said in a press statement Thursday. Kymlycka JD: Multiculturalism: The issues and the basics. University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa, You can also search for this author in Neustupny JV, Nekvapil J: Language management in the Czech Republic. Both simple and organised management are seen as developing in a number of stages. Know The Facts About Sylvain Helaine, Know About Dr. Azeez Pasha, Sanjjanaa Galrani Husband, Solve: We encourage you to publish your seller information in the Google sellers.json file. 10.1017/S0022278X00011319. While acknowledging the import of Amutabi’s () analysis, the current discussion does not subscribe to the deductions which can be characterised as simplistic. However, the controversies attendant to quotas in Africa’s education are also manifest in debates on quotas in Kenyan education system with Opiyo () cited in Yakaboski and Nolan (), p. 5 opining that the system perpetuates tribal and ethnic segregation rather than promoting diversity. In Cross-cultural encounters: Communication and mis-communication. The third part discusses primary teacher education in Kenya as well as the quota system in Kenya’s education. International Journal of Educational Development 2009, 29: 56–64. Further, mother tongue is also the basis upon which all other learning is anchored. Oxford University Press, New York. The classification of quotas into geographical (spatial) and social is also shared by Foster (ibid). Mbaabu () provides a cursory overview of these by documenting that the Phelps Stokes Commission of 1924 recommended the use of only four mother tongues for education in Kenya. Historically, modernisation is the process of change towards those types of social, economic and political systems that have developed in Western and North America from the seventeenth century to the nineteenth and have spread to other European countries and in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries to the South American, Asian and African continents. By using this website, you agree to our Language management theory maintains that, in principle, language problems originate in simple management and from there they are transferred to organised management. The discussion ends with a mention of how the quota system works in practice in Kenyan education. The traditional nuance of development as ‘modernisation’ explains why in many polities in the developing world MTE is only for the first few years of schooling before transition to education in other languages, usually western languages. These were Kiswahili, Dholuo, Luhyia and Gikuyu. Other research such as Dovlo () conceptualise quotas as a coping strategy in educating and training of professionals especially in societies that have a history of systemic exclusion of certain sections of society from certain professions such as health care education. "Primary education to children should be given in their mother tongue to instill a sense of respect for it in young minds," he said.
2020 primary education in mother tongue article