So in here although for shorthand I’ll just say ‘native speaker’, whenever I say that, remember that I mean a specific group of ‘native speakers’ who speak the privileged standard ‘native speaker’ English. Would love your thoughts, please comment. There are two types of English learners, i.e. The circles represent the different tiers of World Englishes. "Although ESL (English as Second Language) and EFL (English as Foreign Language) are often used interchangeably, there are unique differences between the two. TEFL; About TEFL; Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) Looking for adventure? (2019). ELT Journal, 74(1), 1–9. If you for example want to model pronunciation or a particular grammar feature or some vocabulary, who is going to be a model for that? Another aspect that I think is vital as well when teaching ELF is to use non-native speakers as models of the language. As English spreads globally, more countries are added to the circles. About NUI Galway. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccz042. The European Journal of Applied Linguistics and TEFL, 6(1). And you really need to reflect that in your materials. If I could summarize them in one sentence, the main difference is that those perceived as ‘native speakers’ are no longer at the center of the language, no longer seen as the only default standard that all students should aspire to imitate; on the other hand, what’s emphasized when teaching ELF is the global nature of the English language and the fact that most people who use it are ‘non-native speakers’. These terms are most commonly used in relation to teaching and learning English as a second language, but they may also be used in relation to demographic information. ESL and EFL in action According to this theory, there are three concentric circles of World English that can be used to categorize places where English is studied and spoken and map English diffusion. © All rights reserved. related. Here’s more on this including a sample lesson plan you could use. Around 10% of the world are EFL users/learners; 80% of the world speaks no English. And I’m included in this because I’m guilty of this myself as well. Ultimately, writer Christopher Fernandez argues, English is only considered a medium of instruction in education and government in ESL or ENL contexts, not EFL. English as a Second Language (ESL) and English as a Foreign Language (EFL) require two different strategies for teaching for a number of reasons. So what are some of the characteristics of teaching English as a Foreign Language? It puts those perceived as ‘native speakers’ as the only and default correct language and culture models. This can involve models of pronunciation, and I’ve done another video about how you can use non-native speakers as valid models of pronunciation, but they can also model grammar and vocabulary. A second characteristic would be the fact that standard pronunciation, standard ‘native speaker’ pronunciation is seen as the only appropriate goal for our students. English as a Second Language (ESL) worksheets and online activities. ELT Journal, Advance online publication. ELT Journal. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccz049, Syrbe, M., & Rose, H. (2016). those who use English as Second Language (ESL) and those who use English as Foreign Language (EFL). And even more shockingly, only 0.5% of them had a foreign accent. A lot of you are probably familiar with the acronym EFL, or English as a Foreign Language. An analysis of business English coursebooks from an ELF perspective. People are attracted to teaching English for different reasons. Using learners’ first language (L1) is widely avoided in English as a foreign language (EFL) classes (Cook, 2001; Littlewood & Yu, 2011). I’ve been talking a lot about the acronym ELF , English as a Lingua Franca, I’ve been talking a lot about teaching ELF, they are entitled to the privilege that they enjoy in English language teaching because of the knowledge of the target native speaker culture, native speakerism and its impact on English language teaching, And I would argue that as a result it serves to further perpetuate native speakerism, principles for teaching ELF more extensively here, You can read in more detail what this would involve right here, You can see exactly what 5 steps you should follow in this video, And you really need to reflect that in your materials, Here’s more on this including a sample lesson plan you could use, Here are a few activities to help you do this, then consider joining TEFL Equity Academy, Racism in English Language Teaching is widespread, Teaching EFL vs Teaching ELF (English as a Lingua Franca), Why employing non-native speaker teachers makes perfect sense by James Scholl.
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