01/03/2011. Required the President to seek approval from the Senate before removing appointees. Pageant Ch 20, 21, 22, Flag Ch 14, 15. Total Cards. Subject. Title. If you need to contact the Course-Notes.Org web … The Meaning of Freedom A. Created. Blacks and the Meaning of Freedom 1. 30 (T) Junior Meeting - Balfour & Prestige Portraits, Cafeteria, 8:35AM. Our AP study guides, practice tests, and notes are the best on the web because they're contributed by students and teachers like yourself. e. protect them from the Ku Klux Klan. a. Fourteen were elected to the U.S. House of Representatives. mugwumps. The Women's Trade Union League (WTUL) (1903–1950) was a U.S. organization of both working class and more well-off women to support the efforts of women to organize labor unions and to eliminate sweatshop conditions. Create your own flash cards! o Alice Paul formed Congressional Union, 1914: wanted women’s suffrage through constitutional amendment; allied with National Women’s Party in 1917. o Harriot Stanton Blatch worked for women’s vote; founded Equality League of Self Supporting Women in 1907 to recruit working women into suffrage movement. The primary role of the Union League was … NA. 140 South Broad Street Philadelphia, PA 19102 215-563-6500 c. educate them on their civic duties. Jane Addams That's easy — it's the best way to study for AP classes and AP exams! Key Terms: Freedmen's Beureau "10 percent" Reconstruction plan; Wade-Davis Bill ... Woman's Loyal League. Progressivism and the Republican Roosevelt. You just finished Chapter 22: The Ordeal of Reconstruction, 1865-1877. Apush Unit 4 Answers questionWhat did nineteenth-century American expansionists mean by the term Manifest Destiny? Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution is ratified, prohibiting the manufacture, sale, and transportation of liquor (Jan. 16). Passed by Congressional Republicans in response to Abraham Lincoln's "10 percent plan", it required that 50 percent of a state's voters pledge allegiance to the Union, and set stronger safeguards for emancipation. \ APUSH Ch. answerThe citizens of the US had a God-given right to Rugby Union & League. Women's Trade Union League: made up of both working class and wealthy women; formed in 1903 to support the efforts of women to organize labor unions and eliminate sweatshop conditions: Muller v. … Pennsylvania congressman who led the Radical Republican faction in the House of Representatives during and after the Civil War, advocating for abolition and later, the extension of civil rights to freed blacks. Passed by the newly-elected Republican Congress, it divided the South into five military districts, disenfranchised former confederates, and required that Southern states both ratify the Fourteenth Amendment and write state constitutions guaranteeing freedmen the franchise before gaining readmission to the Union. initiative. e. protect them from the Ku Klux Klan. Davis was temporarily clapped into irons during the early days of his two-year imprisonment but he and his “conspirators” were finally release, partly because the odds were that no Virginia jury would convict them of the charge of treason, All rebel leaders were finally pardoned by President Johnson as sort of a Christmas present in 1868 but Congress did not remove all remaining civil disabilities until thirty years later and only restored Davis’s citizenship more than a century later, In the South, not only had an age perished, but a civilization had collapsed, in both its economic and its social structure (Old South had forever gone with the wind), Charleston and Richmond were rubble-strewn and weed-chocked, Economic life had creaked to a half; banks and business houses had locked their doors, ruined by runaway inflation; factories were smokeless, silent, dismantled, The transportation system had broken down completely; agriculture—the economic lifeblood of the South—was almost hopelessly crippled, The cotton fields now yielded a lush harvest of nothing, the slave-labor system had collapsed, seed was scarce, and livestock had been driven off by plundering Yankees, Beaten but unbent, many high-spirited white Southerners remained dangerously defiant; they cursed the “damnyankees” and spoke of “your government” in Washington; conscious of no crime, these former Confederates continued to believe that their view of secession was correct and that the “lost cause” was still a just war (provided problems), Confusion abounded in the South about the precise meaning of “freedom” for blacks, Emancipation took effect haltingly and unevenly in different parts of the conquered Confederacy; as Union armies marched in and out of various localities, many blacks found themselves emancipated and then re-enslaved (process of freedom slow), The variety of responses to emancipation, by whites as well as blacks, illustrated the sometimes startling complexity of the master-slave relationship, Loyalty to masters prompted some slaves to resist the liberating Union armies, while other slaves’ pent-up bitterness burst forth violently on the day of liberation; many newly emancipated slaves joined Union troops in pillaging their master’s possessions, Prodded by Yankee armies of occupation, all masters were eventually forced to recognize their slaves’ permanent freedom; though some blacks initially responded to news of their emancipation with suspicion and uncertainty, they soon celebrated, Many freed slaves took new names; though many whites perceived such behavior as insubordinate, they were forced to recognize the realities of emancipation, Tens of thousands of emancipated blacks took to the roads, some to test their freedom, others to search for long-lost spouses, parents, and children, Emancipation thus strengthened the black family, and many newly freed men and women formalized “Slave marriages” for personal and pragmatic reasons, including the desire to make their children legal heirs to plots of land they now owned, Other blacks left former masters to work in towns and cities, where existing black communities provided protection and mutual assistance (whole communities moved), The westward flood of these “Exodusters” was stemmed only when steamboat captains refused to transport more black migrants across the Mississippi River, The church became focus of black community life in the years following emancipation, As slaves, blacks had worshiped alongside whites, but now they formed their own churches pastured by their own ministers (Baptist, Methodist Episcopal Church), These churches formed the bedrock of black community life, and they soon gave rise to other benevolent, fraternal and mutual aid societies (protected newly won freedom), Emancipation also meant education for many blacks; learning to read and write had been a privilege generally denied to them under slavery; freedmen wasted no time establishing societies for self-improvement, which undertook to raise funds to purchase land, build schoolhouses, and hire teachers (Southern blacks found out that demand stripped supply), They accepted the aid of Northern white women sent by the American Missionary Association, who volunteered their services as teachers (federal government for help), Abolitionists had long preached that slavery was a degrading institution; now the emancipators were faced with the brutal reality that the freedmen were overwhelmingly unskilled, unlettered, without property or money, and with scant knowledge, To cope with the problem throughout the conquered South, Congress created the Freedmen’s Bureau on March 3, 1865 (intended to be a primitive welfare agency), It was to provide food, clothing, medical care, and education both to freedmen and to white refugees; heading the bureau was a warmly sympathetic friend of the blacks, Union general Oliver O. Howard (founded and president of Howard University), The bureau helped education the most; it taught 200,00 blacks how to read—many former slaves had a passion for learning, partly because they wanted to close the gap between themselves and whites and partly because they longed to read the Word of God, But in other areas, the bureau’s accomplishments were meager—or even mischievous, Although the bureau was authorized to settled former slaves on forty-acre tracts confiscated from the Confederates, little land actually made it into blacks’ hands, Instead local administrators often collaborated with planters in expelling blacks from towns and cajoling them into signing labor contracts to work for their former masters, Still the white South resented the bureau as a meddlesome federal interloper that threatened to upset white racial dominance (it eventually expired in 1872), Few presidents have faced with a more perplexing sea of troubles than that confronting Andrew Johnson; no citizen has ever reached the White House from humbler beginnings, Born to impoverished parents in North Carolina and early orphaned, Johnson never attended school but was apprenticed at age ten to a tailor in North Carolina—like many self0made man, he was inclined to over-praise his maker, John became active in politics in Tennessee, where he had moved to and shone as an impassioned champion of the poor whites against the planter aristocrats, Elected to Congress, he attracted much favorable attention in the North but no the South when he refused to secede with his won state (appointed war governor of TN), Political exigency next thrust Johnson into the vice presidency; Lincoln’s Union party in 1864 needed to attract the support from the War Democrats and other pro-Southern elements, and Johnson, a Democrat, seemed to be the ideal man (typhoid fever//whiskey), Johnson was a man of parts; he was intelligent, able, forceful, and gifted with honesty; he was also steadfastly devoted to duty and to the people, he was a dogmatic champion of states’ rights and the Constitution (he often presented a copy of the document to visitors), Yet the man was a misfit; a Southerner who did not understand the North, a Tennessean who had earned the distrust of the South, a Democrat who had never been accepted by the Republicans, a president who had never been elected to the office, he was not at home, Hotheaded, contentious, and stubborn, he was the wrong man in the wrong place at the wrong time; a reconstruction policy devised by angels may have failed in his hands, Even before the shooting war had ended, the political war over Reconstruction had begun, Abraham Lincoln believed that the Southern states had never legally withdrawn from the Union; their formal restoration to the Union would therefore be relatively simple, Accordingly, Lincoln in 1863 proclaimed his “10 percent” Reconstruction plan; it decreed that a state could be reintegrated into the Union when 10 percent of its voters in the presidential election of 1860 had taken an oath of allegiance to the United States and pledged to abide by emancipation (formal erection of state government), Lincoln’s proclamation provoked a sharp reaction in Congress; Republicans feared the restoration of the planter aristocracy to power and the possible re-enslavement of blacks, Republicans there rammed through Congress in 1864 the Wade-Davis Bill which required that 50 percent of a state’s voters take the oath of allegiance and demanded stronger safeguards for emancipation than Lincoln’s as the price of readmission, Lincoln “pocket-vetoed” this bill by refusing to sign it after Congress had adjourned; Republicans were outraged and refused Louisiana (who had followed Lincoln’s 10%), Controversy surrounding the Wade-Davis bill had revealed deep differences between the president and Congress; unlike Lincoln, many in Congress insisted that the seceders had indeed left the Union and had therefore forfeited all their rights (“committed suicide”), They could be readmitted only as “conquered provinces” (Congress decreed conditions), This episode further revealed differences among the Republican party, Two factions were emerging; the majority moderate group tended to agree with Lincoln that the seceded states should be restored to the Union as simply and swiftly as reasonable—though on Congress’s terms, not the president’s, Minority radical group believed that the South should atone more painfully for sins, Before the South should be resorted the radicals wanted its social structure uprooted, the planters punished and the newly emancipated blacks protected by federal power, Some of the radicals were secretly pleased when the assassin’s bullet felled Lincoln, for the martyred president had shown tenderness toward the South; spiteful “Andy” Johnson, who shared their hatred for the planter aristocrats, would presumably also share their desire to reconstruct the South with a rod of iron (radical groups of Republicans), Johnson disillusioned them; he agreed with Lincoln that the seceded states had never legally been outside the Union; thus he recognized several of Lincoln’s 10 percent governments and on May 29, 1865, issues his own Reconstruction proclamation, It disenfranchised certain leading Confederates, including those with taxable property worth more than $20,000 though they might petition him for personal pardons, It called for special state conventions (required to repeal the ordinances of secession, repudiate all Confederate debts, and ratify the slave-freeing 13, States that complied with these conditions would be swiftly readmitted to the Union, Johnson, savoring his dominance over the high-toned aristocrats who now begged his favor, granted pardons in abundance (bolstered by political resurrection of the planter elite, the recently rebellious states moved rapidly in 1865 to organize governments, Among the first acts of the new Southern regimes sanctioned by Johnson was the passage of the iron-toothed Black Codes (these laws were designed to regulate the affairs of the emancipated blacks, much as the slave statues had done in pre-Civil War days, Mississippi passed the first such law in November 1865, and other southern states soon followed suit; the Blacks cods carried in severity from state to state (MI > GA), The Black Codes aimed, first of all, to ensure a stable and subservient labor force; the crushed Cotton Kingdom could not rise until the fields were once again put under hoe and plow—and many whites wanted to make sure that they retained tight control, Dire penalties were therefore imposed by the codes on blacks who “jumped” their labor contracts, which usually committed them to work for one year (pittance wages), Violators could be made to forfeit back wages or could be forcibly dragged back to work by paid “Negro-catchers” (captured freedmen could be fined and then hired out), The codes also sought to restore as nearly as possible the pre-emancipation system of race relations; freedom was legally recognized, as were some other privileges, such as the right to marry; all codes forbade a black so serve on a jury, some even barred blacks from renting or leasing land and nowhere were blacks allowed to vote, These oppressive laws mocked the ideal of freedom, so recently purchased by buckets of blood; the Black Codes imposed terrible burdens on unfettered blacks, struggling against mistreatment and poverty to make their way as free people (economic dependence), Lacking capital, and with little to offer but their labor, thousands of impoverished former slaves slipped into the status of sharecropper farmers, as did many landless whites, Luckless sharecroppers gradually sank into a morass of virtual peonage and remained there for generations; countless blacks as well as poorer whites in effect became slaves to the soil and to creditors (some thought it conceded too much to freedom), Black Codes made an ugly impression in the North (Had the North won the war?
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