I think the best way to get it is to follow #10 and that is travel. 'Show Racism the Red Card' - tackling racism in the context of football). Do not take into account any outside factors that may lead to a discrimination lawsuit. 1. In addition to reaffirming the Common Ingroup Identity Model (see #6 above), Sharif’s classic study is a reminder that when resources are scarce, people are more inclined to decide how to divvy up these resources according to—yes—socially constructed categories. The training course involved group discussion, role-play and videos, and was facilitated by Aboriginal employees (the target outgroup). A mixture of lab-based interventions and evaluations of prejudice-reduction initiatives 'in the field' make up the growing literature on 'what works', however the majority of studies are controlled and experimental, have taken place in psychology laboratories, and often with psychology students as participants. Another key issue is to think about who the interventions are targeting and who they are likely to be missing. Combating prejudice is the oxygen mask on an airplane, Thapar-Olmos explained. However, these effects were short-lived, and it is suggested that this was a consequence of a lack of a clear anti-racist purpose, and failure to build on initial signs of potential improvement in relations. incorporates a naivete about what that phrase really out more about cookies, Educational strategies (including but not limited to school-based interventions). Some of the feedback included use of symbols that children may not understand, for example paramilitary symbols. Two scholars in the field of prejudice and discrimination, Whitley and Kite, offer and overview of solutions that the individual can exert in order to reduce prejudice. MzCalypso. Judge Jeremy Fogel explores how being present in the moment helps him keep a clear mind and stay connected to his true values. Learn how gratitude can lead to a better life—and a better world. Tower Hamlets Summer University is a voluntary sector, informal education project. The normative communication functions of media can be considered more controversial to libertarians, and again the issue of to what extent Government has the right to intervene in this way is contentious. Prejudice and discrimination have been prevalent throughout human history. Tis the season for countdowns—of the past year’s best movies, albums, news stories, and more. How to reduce prejudice among groups of children at school July 17, 2015 9.44am EDT. The following techniques all work to decrease prejudice through emotional methods. Exposure to prejudice and discrimination is a major risk factor for poor mental health. Yet this book is almost unique among scientific volumes in its focus on that goal. This study has demonstrated that empowering youth to take on a leadership role, such as a peer educator, positively affects the youth leader. Acknowledge differences, rather than try to fight an uphill battle to ignore them. Discrimination in the workplace is a pressing issue that employers face every day. The word "prejudice" can literally be broken down into "pre-" and "judgment." The Cross-Cultural Awareness programme was an anti-racist educational course used in South Australia in various institutions including some government agencies. The programme was carried out in a 'curriculum only' or 'contact & curriculum' basis, to test the 'contact' effect (shared learning) as well as the impact of talking about the issues. Educational prejudice-reduction initiatives build on contact theory through the premise that activities such as cooperative learning; discussion and peer influence; instruction; and multi-cultural curriculum will help to reduce prejudice in a way that contact alone might not be sufficient to. Sharing perspectives: conflict resolution. Do we face a collective challenge as important as maintaining the camp’s water supply was for the Eagles and Scouts? The solution? A course on prejudice, for example, will likely review unconscious bias—the ways in which we can be prejudiced due to processes that happen outside of our awareness. If I tell you, “No matter what you do, do not think about a Pink Elephant,” you are actually more likely to think about that elephant. Lab-based study: 'A prejudice habit-breaking intervention'. Can practicing mindfulness make us wiser? Anti-racism and prejudice reduction campaigns on TV, and public service announcements on radio and billboards, have bee… You may remember En Vogue’s 1992 hit “Free Your Mind.” Did you catch those lyrics? Conformity as an Explanation of Prejudice and Discrimination. The programme's objective was to reduce prejudice towards Aboriginal Australians, a group frequently stereotyped, stigmatised, and discriminated against, and to promote knowledge and appreciation of indigenous culture. Some limitations were noted. Participants were therefore engaged in a long-term process, with intentional efforts to overcome biased responses. Unsurprisingly, though, people in fact can’t read minds, and instead interpret nervousness as dislike or discomfort due to prejudice. Initiatives that use such methods should be aware of these risks. Everyone felt like a New Yorker. These techniques may be useful for more 'hidden minorities', and situations where direct contact is either impractical (for instance, when dealing with prejudice against transgender people, who make up a very small proportion of the population) or might prove problematic (such as in post-conflict societies). Decades of social psychology research indicate that promising approaches to reducing prejudice and discrimination include: • increasing intergroup contact; • working to foster greater empathy and perspective-taking when interacting with others; It is important to point out the methodological limitations of the study. Though government regulations certainly help the situation, the real method to reduce gender discrimination is through education and changing the ways that people think about gender roles. Another relatively rare example of evaluated short-term diversity training initiatives are outlined in a 2005 report entitled 'The Search for Tolerance: Challenging and changing racist attitudes and behaviour among young people', produced for the Joseph Rowntree Foundation (JRF). As children grow, speak to them about prejudice and discrimination and how that hurts people. It perhaps falls into the what 'should' work category when talking about reducing prejudice, but the theoretical research encourages us to be careful in this respect. However, a closer examination of the football tournament raises questions about the long-term effects of such initiatives. It’s the new year, and many of us are likely to make New Year’s resolutions to lose weight, work out, and get healthy. There is a strong suggestion that programmes can reinforce inequalities/discrimination felt by minority participants by drawing attention to difference. A mixture of quantitative (survey) and qualitative methods were used. A new study suggests that social and economic justice in your country play a large role in your happiness. The own-race bias disappeared, and people were no worse at recalling White versus Black faces. But I do notice myself thinking in divisive terms sometimes, even when I try not to. anti-sectarian, anti-racist, anti-homophobic etc.) Part of the activities included using media to talk about stereotypes - for example, looking at websites such as 'Facing History and Ourselves' to learn more about the history of anti-Semitism. Having summarised some of the important theoretical contributions to prejudice-reduction, I will now present a summary of the main types of interventions with evidence on effectiveness, drawing on case studies and suggesting some principles which may be usefully applied elsewhere. Finding ways to reduce prejudice and discrimination is the central issue in attacking racism in our society. The only to prevent prejudice and discrimination is open education. They all hold completely different meanings while being related to each other. Racism in this country is nowhere near as blatant or routine as it was 50 years ago. Discrimination vs Stereotype vs Prejudice. Many things can remind us of our own mortality, and many of them are outside of our control. The report claims that the intervention helped to challenge everyday understandings about 'outgroups', particularly in the context of Catholic-Protestant relations. In a previous blog entry, I summarized a study that found that under conditions of cognitive load (when you are mentally busy doing multiple tasks), people were more likely to label a Black child as “aggressive” than they were a White child. would work better than a ‗catch-all‘ focus on prejudice… of the recipe. Magazine • Again this is something that has to be carefully considered when designing, implementing, and monitoring prejudice-reduction initiatives based on intergroup theories. It is questionable whether compulsory attendance at a workplace 'diversity' training course, for example, which may be one-day in length, and often shorter, would satisfy this criteria. Overcoming discrimination, How to reduce discrimination in society. People often interpret this finding as evidence that people, deep down, really are prejudiced. Of course such figures should be treated with caution - the different studies will each have had different evaluation methods, and the recurring problem of short-term vs. longer term attitude-change will be pertinent here too. Aim for a broad commitment to reducing prejudice, not one-shot interventions One objective of this review was to determine whether specific anti-prejudice initiatives (e.g. Discrimination in the workplace is a pressing issue that employers face every day. Prejudice and discrimination: Barriers to social inclusion 7 February 2018. 8 years ago. If it appears that facts are being distorted and what is being depicted is not a true reflection of reality, there may be a risk of alienating the intended audience. Like the Michigan University project outlined above, the intervention was based on the principles of Lewin's 'reeducation' theory. The second is to make values and norms against prejudice more conspicuous. The JRF report recommends empathy-inducing interventions as most valuable in terms of challenging prejudiced attitudes. In particular, there are six conditions that must be met to reduce prejudice, as were cultivated in … Find a local group … All you need is a little compassion and flexibility of thought. Petition your elected officials to support laws and policies that fight against discrimination. The upshot here? There was a significant improvement in knowledge, and a reduction in negative stereotyping and 'old-fashioned prejudice' (p. 258). This lack of evaluation echoes problems raised in previous sections. Importantly, the study noted improvement of attitudes over time, perhaps as people became increasingly self-aware and used the strategies taught to overcome instances of prejudice. I just don’t know how that could ever be tested, unless there is a culture relatively free of stereotypes somewhere I’m unaware of? Link With Discrimination . In relation to contexts with less overly problematic intergroup relations, such as Scotland, we of course have to be wary of what conclusions might be drawn from 'what works' in these settings, however there may be useful strategies that could help to influence prejudice-reduction initiatives more broadly. How to Prevent Discrimination in Your Workplace. It is reasonable to suggest that, at best, media campaigns might be deemed effective in relatively 'vague' ways. This section, however, looks at more short-term and isolated diversity training programmes, rather than focused and longer term interventions targeted at certain populations. The authors also discuss some of the media campaigns on racism in football, noting that: "If a campaign depicts racial discrimination at football matches as coming from far-right neo-fascists, rather than by more everyday supporters, it will not ring true, and so have less impact on prejudice and discrimination at matches" (29). One of the few academically-evaluated applied prejudice reduction programmes was published in 2001, the culmination of research in Australian workplaces in the 1990s: 'Stereotype Change and Prejudice Reduction: Short- and Long-term Evaluation of a Cross-cultural Awareness Programme' by Hill and Augoustinos. Part of the reason that I write this blog is to help disseminate what psychology can offer us about processes related to prejudice and stigma. Be sure to select the person that best fits those requirements and that you feel will be the best asset to your company. Such oversights risk alienating audiences, so this highlights the importance of utilising the available academic evidence when planning interventions. The media can provide an informational or a normative function, and initiatives may include poster campaigns, advertising, storylines on television programmes, and plays. The 'One Scotland Many Cultures' campaign by the Scottish Government was launched in 2002 and involved advertising (through TV, radio etc. The 'Diversity Awareness Programme' for convicted racially motivated offenders is run by probation officers. In Action • Children are able to recognize differences and hold sectarian prejudices from the age of three. Thus, many psychologists have studied ways in which categorization processes can be used to reduce prejudice. The results of the intervention were relatively positive. I vividly remember the experience of traveling in Beijing 20 years ago, on the hottest day of the year, and discovering that one could simply not find cold drinking water anywhere (this is no longer true). In many ways, the interventions discussed in the previous section could be termed 'diversity training' because the objective is to help people value diversity, as opposed to fearing difference - a key cause of prejudice. However, there were limitations. But, Further, research has shown that colorblindness can actually increase prejudice, precisely because the salience of race makes it more likely to be used unconsciously. Juan Williams and the Psychology of Prejudice, What Political Polarization Looks Like in the Brain, Can America Make a Course Correction? Solutions and theories to reduce discrimnation at the individual level are based on emotional and cognitive processes that results in “changes in intergroup attitudes” (Whitley & Kite, 2009). Do your best to protect yourself and others and to minimize risk. As discussed in the previous section, discussing group difference can be positive in terms of improving attitudes towards out-groups, however it is important that these discussions are handled carefully. The report is based on five separate case studies of small projects in the United Kingdom. Finally, the authors emphasise the importance of such programmes being a part of - not an alternative to - broader systematic attacks on prejudice at all levels: 'the individual, the intergroup, and the institutional/structural levels'. To know why discrimination exists we must first understand what discrimination is. 4. This section of the report outlines various case studies of these principles being implemented in prejudice-reduction interventions. Making inclusion the norm. These often take place in corporate workplaces, and with adults as opposed to children and adolescents, though some do focus on younger people. They emphasize the overall need for national group identity and the importance of each group's unique history. Following a discussion of the general theoretical concerns with short-term diversity training, this section will draw on two case studies of applied prejudice-reduction interventions to explore the strengths and weaknesses of this type of approach. When asked about what led to the lack of intergroup contact, each group correctly said that they themselves avoided contact because of their fears of rejection, but incorrectly attributed the other group’s avoidance to lack of interest. Unsurprisingly, many of the key prejudice-reduction interventions have taken place in areas in which ethnic or other prejudice results in or is exacerbated by overt conflict, or at least has done in recent times. Some general limitations of diversity training courses which are similar to those highlighted in the educational initiatives section are also worth mentioning. Firstly, diversity training programmes are often not evaluated at all, or are evaluated by participants directly after sessions, making it impossible to track any long-term effect on attitudes or behaviours. People are often biased against others outside of their own social group, showing prejudice (emotional bias), stereotypes (cognitive bias), and discrimination (behavioral bias). Crucially, existing opinions or attitudes could result in messages backfiring. One variable that makes us less prejudiced is education. People are poor mind readers, unlike the X-Men’s Professor X. However, Johnson had some of the participants watch a short video clip that made them feel happy before seeing the second round of faces. Describe Allport’s intergroup contact theory and state whether it is supported by research. The authors note that crucial to the success of the intervention was careful choice of facilitators; involving those who had previously completed the programme to help run it the following year; careful attention to feedback; and the collaboration of researchers, practitioners (in this case teachers), and participants (in this case students). In spite of the steps taken to reduce prejudice and discrimination from the society, they are still prevalent throughout the world. To know why discrimination exists we must first understand what discrimination is. The following techniques all work to decrease prejudice through emotional methods. The recent book I co-edited with Jason Marsh and Jeremy Adam Smith, Are We Born Racist?, highlights some recent advances in the neuroscience of prejudice. This suggests that short-term diversity training programmes may risk being seen as superficial, inevitably lacking the depth that more long-term interventions can have. We’ve Done It Before. Short-term activities may be useful in conjunction with other interventions (for example, on-going education, increase in contact). Prejudice, Discrimination, and Stereotyping By Susan T. Fiske. Diversity training may involve group discussions about 'difference', based on the same values which are at the heart of educational initiatives: overcoming ignorance; expressing hidden assumptions; and feeling empathy for other groups or individuals (Paluck 2006: 581). In contrast, the 'You, Me, and Us' programme in Peterborough, which was a series of workshops within schools involving drama, poetry, storytelling, music and art, proved more popular and because of this potentially more effective. When prejudice is translated into action, it can become discrimination or worse. Your feedback will help us improve this site, What works to reduce prejudice and discrimination? 2. Research by Sam Gaertner and colleagues on the “common ingroup identity model” shows that when we are able to recategorize other people according to features or characteristics that we share, we are more likely to see them as part of “us,” and are therefore less likely to show prejudice towards them. Use of media in educational interventions. Find Similar lessons could perhaps be learned for media-based interventions. Other techniques, such as education or discussion between social groups, can also be used to help reduce prejudice and discrimination, The role of the facilitator (the teacher) was noted as very important. It’s really them (and the plants) versus the zombies. The song, I believe, is not accurate Discrimination vs Stereotype vs Prejudice. Jimmy Stevens | 4:04 pm, January 24, 2011 | Link. We are more likely to be persuaded to change attitudes if there is a general consensus amongst our own group. Reinforcing stereotypes and failing to properly consider the target audience and what messages the campaign wishes to get across are problems frequently raised in studies on diversity training and educational initiatives too. People who are more educated express fewer stereotypes and prejudice in general. By contrast, when Sharif induced the boys to all work together—to fix the camp’s water supply (how’s that for a common goal? In this study, the authors seek to build on promising but limited results from what they term 'easy-to implement strategies' such as perspective taking and imagining counter-stereotypic examples. This may be appropriate in certain contexts, such as health promotion or crime awareness. Overcoming discrimination, How to reduce discrimination in society. Although much of the existing research in this area is lab-based, there is value in also highlighting those interventions that were carried out and evaluated 'in the field'. Click here to watch a video about the good you can make happen. This “we get the goods, they don’t” mentality is sometimes referred to as “realistic conflict theory,” and it has a powerful effect on our behavior because we then use negative stereotypes to justify the negative behavior itself (e.g., “We don’t share with Them because They can’t be trusted.”). A number of potential objections might be raised regarding the findings discussed in this section. Most of the research has focused on reducing racist prejudice, especially that of Whites toward Blacks. Genuine institutional and cultural change is undoubtedly more difficult to achieve, but this evaluated case study stresses the importance of bearing in mind that prejudice is not simply a 'personal pathology', and that interventions should look at the structural arrangements of society as a whole. It happens at sporting events, too: People are united by a shared identity and the other differences melt away. Working together toward a common goal can bring different groups of people together. If brain regions light up when we look at pictures of the Other, then we must be born racist. The first empirical example took place in Australian workplaces with adults, and the second in the UK with children and adolescents in school and community settings. Prejudice has to do with the inflexible and irrational attitudes and opinions held by members of one group about another, while discrimination refers to behaviors directed against another group. Just the anticipation of prejudice or discrimination can lead to cardiovascular and psychological stress responses, according to a 2011 AJPA study on discrimination and stress. Clearly, provision of accurate information is important, and a setting which facilitates debate and discussion of what might be considered contentious issues increases the potential efficacy of an intervention. A diverse workplace adds value to your company and ensures a fresh mix of ideas, talent and energy. This theory was supported by the example outlined here: "The present study has also provided evidence supporting the positive impact of promoting youth to become engaged in interventions targeting attitude and behavioral changes among their peers. Nonetheless, it is a positive indication that media can be used successfully as part of educational strategies to reduce prejudice. You can write or call your elected officials to ask them to change discriminatory laws. The assumption that prejudice and egalitarianism is an all-or-none proposition (i.e., one is either prejudiced or one is egalitarian) makes us feel very threatened by the possibility that we may harbor a prejudiced impulse, as that impulse would thus reveal our “true” nature. The initiatives focused on tackling racism and improving intergroup relations, and are described below: "Two are educational and delivered as part of citizenship education in schools, 'Show Racism the Red Card' in Stafford - run by a police officer - and 'You, Me and Us' in Peterborough - run by the local authority's youth service. This may sound silly, but it’s remarkable how much we behave in our daily interactions as if members of other groups have direct access to our thoughts and feelings. A 2008 study found that race-related stress in African-Americans was … For instance, the 'Tower Hamlets Summer University' initiative was criticised for a lack of interactivity and variety of activities. People opened doors for each other, ceded disputed taxis, and smiled at each other on the streets with zero regard to background. I’ll never forget the days after September 11 when I lived in New York City: New Yorkers of all races and creeds were united by the terrible events of the day. Children’s book author Yuyi Morales writes a gratitude letter to the librarian who had a big impact on her. For the purposes of summary and analysis, the interventions that are most frequently studied and that are useful for this report can be roughly divided into three categories: Unsurprisingly, education has long been a key area of interest for scholars in all disciplines who have looked at 'what works' to reduce prejudice. One of the best ways you can fight discrimination is … The final point to make is that 'diversity training', in the sense of short-term initiatives which often take place in corporate workplaces, is dealt with in a separate section, as the principles discussed in this section tend to focus on mid-long term educational strategies, and tend to be aimed at younger people rather than adults. As with almost any question, the first answer that comes to mind is education. Research by Sheldon Solomon, Jeff Greenberg, and Tom Pyszczynski shows that when we experience “mortality salience”—that is, when our own imminent demise is front and center in our consciousness—the things that transcend us, like our country, our values, and our customs, become all the more important to us. As the American public learns more about the LGBT community, this can foster LGBT acceptance. Johnson describes a study he conducted in which he showed participants faces of Black and White people; later he showed these participants some of the same faces, mixed in with new ones, and asked the participants to recall whether they had seen each face or not. The 'One Scotland Many Cultures' project was criticised for poorly-designed surveys which made evaluation even more difficult. Sharif’s research can serve as motivation to all of us to do our part to ensure that we have enough resources to sustain the human race. This important book combines critical analysis of theories about how to reduce prejudice and discrimination with cutting-edge empirical research conducted in real-world settings, as well as in …
2020 how to reduce discrimination and prejudice