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Signicant genetic variability has been found in the root-, associated traits, especially root morphology and ability to penetrate compact soil, of rice root morphology, i.e., root length, thickness, root/shoot ratio, root dry weight, per tiller, deep root dry weight per tiller, showed that osmotic adjustment and dehydration tolerance were negati, nected with root morphological characters associated with drought avoidance, ing program to transfer the deeper root alleles of Azucena into the elite high-, rice among which 11 were for leaf rolling, 10 for leaf drying, 11 for relative water, content, and 10 for relative growth rate under stress. accessions. Theor Appl Genet [Internet]. Japanese Society of Breeding; Dec [cited 2016 Mar 21];56(4):359–364. Recently. Rice Genet Newslet [Internet]. The notable association of some QTLs with other, QTLs for different traits suggests that they hav, help to improve rice varieties for salinity-prone areas where reproducti. 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Loc N, Tinjuangjun P, Gatehouse A (2002) transgene constructs lacking vector backbone sequences generate transgenic rice plants which accumulate higher levels of proteins conferring insect resistance. QTL explains 43.2% of the phenotypic variance and confers salinity tolerance at, Saltol for salinity tolerance in rice, a theoretical framework for MABC, and the, existence of intolerant varieties that are widely accepted by farmers provide an, population, FL478 (IR 66946-3R-178-1-1), has been used to improve the salt toler-. resistance to bacterial blight disease in rice. pp 53–57. (1.21%) when compared to previous decades (2.49, 2000) due to various biotic and abiotic stresses (Khush and Jena, of recent molecular tools to classical rice breeding programs offers substantial opportu, time through (i) marker-assisted selection (MAS) strategies for germplasm improve, genes for resistance to specic or family of pathogens and pests, (iii) examining allelic, diversity in natural populations or breeding material and association mapping of genomic, regions related to the desired traits, and (iv) providing DN, diverse genotypes for plant variety protection. Marker-assisted backcross breeding (MABB) approach was employed to. ) Sakamoto A, Murata A (1998) Metabolic engineering of rice leading to biosynthesis of glycinebetaine and tolerance to salt and cold. This, in turn, leads to an improvement in the grain yield (Azizi, The duration of panicle differentiation is inuenced by QTLs that control heading, date. For human being, rice is an important crop both as a source of food and income. Drought resistance includes drought escape (DE) via a short life cycle or devel-, opmental plasticity; drought avoidance (D, water loss; drought tolerance (DT) via osmotic adjustment (OA), antioxidant capac-, ity, and desiccation tolerance; and drought reco, physicochemical methods that again vary at different de. Use of Biotechnology in Agriculture ... papaya, rice, flax, and chicory) have been approved for commercial production in the USA. members in rice resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. TAG Theor Appl Genet [Internet]. Blackwell Publishing, Ames; [cited 2016 Mar 22]. [cited 2016 Mar 21]; Available from: Nguyen HT, Joshi CP (1994) Molecular genetic approaches to improving heat and drought stress tolerance in crop plants. [cited 2016 Mar 18];35(6):495–508. potential role of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the protection against salt stress, was examined through overexpression in rice (T. gene, showed signicant increase in tolerance to salt (Xu etal. Role of Biotechnology in Rice Production 1. paper are to provide highlights on major complementarities of rice- livestock pp1–526. Weng X, Wang L, Wang J, Hu Y, Du H, Xu C et al (2014) Grain number, plant height, and heading date7 is a central regulator of growth, development, and stress response. A, gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3082044&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract, improves rice yield by increasing grain size and promoting panicle branching. Sci Rep [Internet]. of conventional plant breeding via MAS., backcrossing, pyramiding, early generation selection, and combined MAS, be overlap between these categories (Collard and Mackill, for more than 30 years. Plant Sci 160(3):405–414, Datta K, Baisakh N, Thet KM, Tu J, Datta SK (2002) Pyramiding transgenes for multiple resis-, tance in rice against bacterial blight, yellow stem borer and sheath blight. rium method. Chen H, Tang W, Xu C, Li X, Lin Y, Zhang Q (2005) Transgenic indica rice plants harboring a synthetic cry2A* gene of Bacillus thuringiensis exhibit enhanced resistance against lepidopteran rice pests. [cited 2016 Mar 21];163(4):1752–1765. [cited 2016 Mar 21]; Available from: Tang W, Chen H, Xu C, Li X, Lin Y, Zhang Q (2006) Development of insect-resistant transgenic indica rice with a synthetic cry1C* gene. is induced by ethylene, a gaseous plant hormone that becomes entrapped by water, Genetic studies suggest both simple and quantitative inheritance for submergence, tolerance. Theor Appl Genet [Internet]. [cited 2016 Mar 30]. Furthermore, upon inoculation some of the most resistant transgenic lines. trol the damage caused by different insect pests. Demand for rice continues to increase due to the ever increasing rice consumer base. pp 1–10. ethical and economic issues, among others. [cited 2016 Apr 10];2(2):167–173. Bottlenecks in biosafety regulations need to get resolved for making this technology impactful. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Chang [Internet]. In: Rice genetics. Available from: Ouyang S-Q, Liu Y-F, Liu P, Lei G, He S-J, Ma B et al (2010) Receptor-like kinase OsSIK1 improves drought and salt stress tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa) plants. Anuradha K, Agarwal S, Batchu AK, Babu PA, Swamy BPM, Longvah T et al (2012) Evaluating rice germplasm for iron and zinc concentration in brown rice and seed dimensions. [cited 2016 Mar 22]; 22(10):1268–1281. develop strategies in boosting rice yields. [cited 2016 Apr 6];38(4):62–66. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S, Ravindra H, Mukesh S, Narasimhamurthy HB, Imran Khan HS, Shruthi, rice landraces against rice root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne graminicola. Several transgenic rice lines hav, stress resistance, herbicide tolerance, and improvement of nutritional value as well as, to improve the quality of rice grains (Endo et, genetic engineering techniques such as “marker-free transgenics” and targeted genome, duction of new genetic material to the targeted location in the genome. In today’s rapidly increasing population that is e, to reach 9.1 billion by the year 2050 (Fao 2009), the demand for rice simultaneously, increases as well. potential areas. Single gene transformation or gene pyramiding has been used for accumulation of multiple resistant gene in crop variety resistant to pests. Nature Publishing Group 12(4):211–221. Ahmadi N, Negrão S, Katsantonis D, Frouin J, Ploux J, Letourmy P et al (2011) Targeted association analysis identified japonica rice varieties achieving Na(+)/K (+) homeostasis without the allelic make-up of the salt tolerant indica variety Nona Bokra.
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